CONGRESS OF VIENNA
- September, 1814, through June, 1815
- Austria, Great Britain, Prussia, and Russia sought to:
- Restore the Old Regime
- Establish a balance of power.
Important leaders at the Congress of Vienna
- Prince Clemens (or Klemens) von Metternich of Austria – wanted to roll back the clock to 1792
- Lord Robert Castlereagh of Great Britain – wanted to end the French military threat
- Tsar Alexander I of Russia – wanted to set up a “holy alliance” of Christian rulers who would fight united to suppress future revolutions
- Prince Maurice de Talleyrand of France – shrewdly tried to get a good deal for France
Results of the Congress of Vienna
- Redesigned the European map to surround France with strong countries
- Principles of legitimacy – restored the hereditary (“legitimate”) monarchies
- Concert of Europe – European leaders would meet to address their concerns
- For the most part, large-scale war was avoided for 100 years (until World War I in 1914)
- Failure to realize the power of nationalism
Alliances formed after the Congress of Vienna
Two alliances were created:
- The Holly Alliance formed by Prussia, Austria and Russia.
- The Quadruple Alliance with the same members of the Holly Alliance plus United Kingdom.