Restoration and the Congress of Vienna did not stop the spread of new ideologies in Europe. The most important ones were:
- Liberalism supported individual liberty and rights of the citizens, was against the privileges and defended the separation of powers and parliamentary systems.
Liberalism was supported by bourgeoisie and commoners. Liberal revolution cycle started in 1820, 1830 and finished in 1848.
- Nationalism was based on looking for common language and culture relationships. Their proclaimed the existence of as many states as different cultural identities demanded it. Nationalism spread in areas dominated by Empires such as Greece or those areas divided in different political entities with a common culture such as Italy and Germany.