The main problems faced by the Restoration were:

1. Opposition to turnismo. The other parties not involved in the turnismo were against the the system promoted in the Constitution of 1876.  The main parties were:

  • The Republican Party split into different sections. Their leaders were Castelar, Pi i Margall, Ruiz Zorrilla and Nicolás Salmerón but all of them defended a Republican system.

  • The Carlist Party was not satisfied with the succession so they declared war against Alfonso XII and the area of Castellón and North of Spain were occupied by the Carlists.

Acción de Piedrabuena - Carga de la caballería del Coronel Melgerizo (Segunda parte de la Guerra Civil. Anales desde 1843 hasta el fallecimiento de don Alfonso XII).jpg

  • The Socialist Party (PSOE) founded by Pablo Iglesias in 1879 became more important in the Spanish labour movement.

2. The labour movement became legal as the freedom of meeting and association were granted by the Constitution of 1876 and the Law of Associations of 1887. Two main labour unions were created. On one hand the Socialist Party promoted the UGT and the anarchist FTRE which had more members among the Catalonian Industrial Workers and the Andalusian agricultural workers.


3. Regionalism and local nationalism were important as a reaction against the centralist system of the Restoration. 

  • Catalan nationalism demanded that catalan became the official language as the Spanish in Catalonia as well as having their own political autonomy as they proclaimed in the Bases of Manresa .

  • The Basque Nationalism led by Sabino Arana had a catholic and conservative ideology and defended the regional charters and traditions. The Basque Nationalist  Party was founded in 1897.

  • Galician nationalism just wanted to defend their economy and traditions.



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