The European population grew during the 18th century. However, the growth was more than notorious in Britain as a consequence of the demographic and industrial revolutions. The main cause was the decrease of the mortality rate due improvements in diet as well as control of epidemics, better urban hygiene and advances in medicine. Birth rate was high enough to produce a continuous natural population growth.
All of these factors resulted in an steady increase of working force and demand for products and this phenomena is known as demographic revolution. This population boom was controlled also using emigration to colonies as solution for overpopulation.
OTHER CAUSES OF INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION were:
- Modernization of means of transport and transport networks resulted in an increase of domestic trade. Road surfaces were renovated and canals were constructed. On the other hand, foreign trade reach a global level due to colonialism, need of raw materials and new markets.
- Growth of financial means as profits from commerce and land were invested in industry mainly on mining, textile and steel. Banks and saving banks increased.
- The availability of energy sources and raw materials. The Industrial Revolution in England used energy sources such as coal and raw materials like cotton and iron. The use of these materials was encouraged by inventions being the most important one the steam engine developed in 1769 by James Watt.