Connected to Ferdinand´s VII reign is the independence of the Spanish colonies in America. The process was promoted by the criollos unsatisfied with the Spanish rulers because of their lack of power and the high taxation they had. The spread of liberal ideas and the military aid of USA and Britain consolidated the revolt.
The process is divided into two stages:
- 1810-1814 The Juntas government favored the independence process led by Bolivar and San Martin who were repressed after Ferdinand´s comeback to Spain.
- 1815-1825. The king rejected to give autonomy to the colonies and with the British and American support, Spanish armies were defeated at the battles of Pichincha and Ayacucho. Since then the only colonies Spain maintained were Cuba, Puerto Rico and the Philippines. The new American Republics had problems and government was in hands of military leaders.